Data sources Trade Rejection Analysis

Trade Rejection Analysis

Data sources

Glossary & Data Sources

Indicator Description Source (Last accessed/downloaded Sept., 8th 2020 )
Population 2019 estimated World bank indicator
GDP 2018 Actual value in dollar World bank indicator
Rural poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of rural population) National poverty headcount ratio is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty lines. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys. World bank indicator
income group See below table World bank indicator
Inflow FDI to Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (AFF), USD, current prices. 2013 millions FAO
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP) 2019 Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3 or 4. World bank indicator
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate) 2019 Employment is defined as persons of working age who were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit, whether at work during the reference period or not at work due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangement. The agriculture sector consists of activities in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, in accordance with division 1 (ISIC 2) or categories A-B (ISIC 3) or category A (ISIC 4). World bank indicator
Agricultural researchers (total number of per 100,000 farmers) 2016   FAO
Average value of food production 2015-17 The indicator expresses the food net production value (in constant 2004-06 international dollars), as estimated by FAO and published by FAOSTAT, in per capita terms.
Unit: I$ per caput
FAOSTAT and ESS calculations.
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 2019 Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. World bank indicator
Logistics performance index: Overall (1=low to 5=high) Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). World bank indicator
Food safety 2017 Mechanisms are established and functioning for detecting and responding to foodborne disease and food contamination.

The proportion/percentage of attribute (a set of specific elements or functions which reflect the level of performance or achievement of IHR Potential hazards 2: Food safety) that have been attained.
Human Development Index 2018 The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes. These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions UNDP
Aggregate number of rejections The simple sum of the annual number of rejections over the study period. Increases in the number of rejections can reflect both increases in the volume of exports and in the rate of noncompliance. UNIDO
Unit rejection rate The number of rejections per US$1 million of exports over the study period. This measure takes account of changes in the volume of exports such that it provides a direct measure of the rate of non-compliance. UNIDO
Relative rejection rate The ratio of country share of total rejections to share of total exports for the entire study period. This provides a convenient measure of the performance of countries relative to one another over the longer term. These data can be presented numerically, graphically (using a logarithmic scale) or in ordinal classes. UNIDO
Frequency of reasons for rejections The total counts of consignments rejected at the border of entry for a particular reason. Examples of possible reasons for rejection include labeling, hygienic condition, adulteration, missing document, additive, bacterial contamination, pesticide residues, veterinary drugs residues, mycotoxins, heavy metal, and packaging. The “aggregate frequency of reasons of rejections” can be different from “aggregate number of rejections” as a single consignment can be rejected on multiple grounds. This indicator helps exporting countries identify areas of capacity building aimed at attaining or improving international trade standards compliance. UNIDO

Income Groups

Group July 1, 2020 (new) July 1, 2019 (old)
Low income < 1,036 < 1,026
Lower-middle income 1,036 - 4,045 1,026 - 3,995
Upper-middle income 4,046 - 12,535 3,996 - 12,375
High income > 12,535 > 12,375

Border rejection data source:

China: The Chinese rejection data records for agri-food products are published by the General Administration of Customs (GAC). The data are records of rejected consignments under HS codes 1 to 24 that do not meet Chinese regulatory requirements.

United States (US): The US food and feed border rejection data is obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration’s (USFDA’s) Operational and Administrative System for Import Support (OASIS), an automated system for processing and making admissibility determinations for shipments of imported products that come under the jurisdiction of the USFDA. The data can be obtained either through download or through a right of information request. The USFDA’s website also contains a description of the variables in the rejection data (Import Refusal Report). For instance, the entry number identifies a consignment/transaction. The data initially contains both food, feed, and non-food rejections. However, the non-food rejections are excluded as the current focus is the analysis of food and feed rejections.

Australia (AU): The AU food and feed border rejection data is obtained from the Australian Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. The data includes label and visual rejections, among other rejections. Imported food is inspected through a program known as the Imported Food Inspection Scheme (IFIS). The scheme inspects imported food to check if it meets Australian requirements for public health and safety and if it is compliant with Australia’s food standards. A risk-based approach is taken when regulating imported food. Specifically, when a consignment of imported food has been referred for inspection, the inspection will involve a visual and label assessment and may also include sampling the food for the application of analytical tests. Under the IFIS, the Minister classifies food as either risk food or surveillance food. Risk food is food that has been assessed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) as posing a medium to high risk to public health, thereby requiring stricter border controls. Surveillance food is considered to pose a low risk to human health and safety. 

Japan (JP): The JP food and feed border rejection data is obtained from the Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). MHLW tracks and controls import consignments that violate the Food Sanitation Law to secure the “safety of diet” of Japanese people. Monthly rejection data can be obtained from the MHLW’s Imported Foods Inspection Services Home Page. The page has both recent rejections and older rejections which are archived.

European Union (EU): The food and feed border rejection data is obtained directly from the officials responsible for the EU’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). RASFF provides a platform for the exchange of information between EU Member States on measures taken in response to food and feed products that pose an immediate risk to human health, both in the EU internal market and with respect to imports from Third Countries. The data initially contains both food, feed, and non-food (food contact material) rejections. However, the non-food rejections are excluded as the current focus is the analysis of food and feed rejections.


The information presented does not necessarily reflect the views of UNIDO or of the governments of UNIDO Member States and as such is not an official record. For official statistical products of UNIDO, please refer to the UNIDO STATISTICS DATA PORTAL under
The art of presentation of material, as well as nominations employed in the Tool do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of UNIDO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers or boundaries.

Terms of Use

Governed by the terms and conditions specified in the United Nations Industrial Development Organization disclaimer